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 written expressions

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
étoile
مسؤولة على اشهار وتطوير المنتدى

مسؤولة على اشهار وتطوير المنتدى
avatar

الاوسمة :
عدد المساهمات : 666
نقاط : 776
السٌّمعَة : 23
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/09/2010


مُساهمةموضوع: written expressions   الخميس 1 مارس 2012 - 18:17

Unit One: Exploring the Past


Civilisations



Topic01:


Modern civilization

has kept changing at a fast pace. Discuss.

Typical

Essay:

A century ago, people were able to live in better conditions than their
parents thanks to the progress made in science and technology. But in practice,
the outcome of this progress was slow to materialise. For instance, most people
still used to travel long distances on foot or by stage coach. And as
mechanization was not introduced significantly in daily activities, household
chores still had to be done manually, and were therefore time consuming.
On the other hand, community life was still an asset for social

cohesion, since people had more opportunities to meet and interact. So they
were able to chat with neighbours at shops or in clubs and have a cup of coffee
with friends or relatives and tell stories and jokes. Likewise, family visits
were frequent and kept the folklore alive, with the grandparents who used to
tell traditional tales or sing lullabies or folk songs to their grandchildren.
Unfortunately, with the development of audiovisual means such as the cinema,
radio, television and then personal appliances like the computer, CD-ROMs and
DVDs, the chances of socialization are dwindling and the lack of interaction
between people may increase stress, loneliness and anxiety.
Could we then complain that we are missing

out on some ingredients in life which used to make our great grandparents
happier? This is probably so, since closer contacts among neighbours, friends
and families had to be beneficial for communal harmony. However, scientific
progress in all fields, particularly in medicine, modes of transportation and
communication, and agribusiness can only show that our lives are today quite
fulfilling and , if anything, more comfortable than a century ago.


Topic02:


Algeria was the cradle of many ancient

civilizations. Discuss.

Typical

Essay:

Algeria is a huge country in Northern
Africa. It covers 920,000 square miles (2,380,000 sq. km), making
it more than three times the size of Texas, and the 11th largest nation on
Earth. It shares borders with Libya,
Mali, Mauritania, Morocco,
Niger, Tunisia, and Western Sahara, and has coastline
on the Mediterranean.
People have been living in the region that is
now Algeria, and the
surrounding Maghreb, for more than 200,000
years. The first civilizations sprang up between 4000 and 8000 years ago,
eventually forming a cohesive population, usually referred to collective as the
Berber culture.
From about 900 BCE Algeria
has been invaded repeatedly by various peoples, mostly from across the Mediterranean. First the Phoenicians came, trading along
the coast and eventually establishing Carthage
in nearby Tunisia and
various outposts in Algeria.
Then came the Romans, who conquered the Berbers more-or-less completely by 24
AD. By the 4th century Algeria
had been converted to Christianity.
Beginning in the 8th century Algeria, and the greater Maghreb,
became a strategic target for the expanding Islamic world. By the end of the
first decade of the 8th century the Umayyads had conquered all of North Africa,
including Algeria.
Over the next few centuries Algeria
converted to Islam and was Arabized dramatically.
In the 16th century Algeria came under the control of the Ottoman Empire, and became a center for Mediterranean piracy and privateering.
It was in Algeria
that the infamous pirate Red Beard (neé Barbarossa) eventually was based, as a provincial
governor. During this period both Arabs and native Berbers saw their roles
diminished, as Turkish became the national language and Turks became entrenched
in most positions of power. Piracy continued to spread and become
institutionalized in Algeria,
as well as its neighbors, in a confederacy known as the Barbary States. In addition to capturing the
wealth of European traders, these pirates also began capturing Christians as
slaves, a turn of events that eventually led the young United States to enter into two of its earliest
wars against the Barbary Coast.
In the early 19th century Algeria was
conquered by the French, who began to settle and develop the region. Although
infrastructure developed under French control, to the majority of the Muslim
inhabitants of Algeria, France was seen
as a harsh colonial power. Resistance and open revolt continued throughout all
of the French occupation, but it began to grow substantially and develop during
the 1930s. Although relatively peaceful attempts were made for a Constitution
and more equality in the mid-1940s, these were met with no support by the
French government.
By 1954 the situation had gotten bad enough
that the citizenry revolted on a massive scale. The National Liberation Front
was the main body of revolt, launching a full-scale civil war that would last for eight years. In that time nearly two million
Algerians would die, and another two to three million were relocated. Independence was finally
achieved in 1962, after one of the longest, bloodiest wars for independence in modern
history.
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]


Topic03:


Write a
composition on the scientific achievements of the ancient Greek civilization.

Typical
Essay:

The Greeks were very
interested in science as a way of organizing the world and making order out of chaos, and having power over some very powerful things like oceans and weather. From about 600 BC, a lot of Greek men spent time observing the planets and the sun and trying to figure out how astronomy worked. They must have gotten their first
lessons from the Babylonians, who were very good at astronomy and also very
interested in it.
By the 400's BC, Pythagoras was interested in finding the patterns and
rules in mathematics and music, and invented the idea of a mathematical proof. Although Greek women
usually were not allowed to study science, Pythagoras did have some women among
his students. Socrates, a little bit later, developed logical methods for deciding whether
something was true or not.
In the 300's BC, Aristotle and other philosophers at the Lyceum and the
Academy in Athens
worked on observing plants and animals, and organizing the different kinds of plants and animals into types.
Again, this is a way of creating order out of chaos.
After Aristotle, using his ideas and also ideas from Egypt and the Persians and Indians, Hippocrates and other Greek doctors wrote important
medical texts that were used for hundreds of years.

Topic04:

Write a
composition on the ancient Egyptian civilization.

Typical
Essay:

Egypt is one of the mostfertile areas of Africa, and one of the most fertile of thecountries aroundthe Mediterranean Sea. Because it is so fertile, people came to live in Egyptearlier than in most places, probably around 40,000 years ago. At first therewere not very many people, but gradually Egypt became more crowded, so therewas more need for a unified government. Around 3000 BC (5000 years ago), Egypt was first unified under one ruler, who wascalled the Pharaoh.
The pharaoh’s government guaranteed both
external and internal security to the people of Egypt. As a consequence, the
Egyptians grew very proud of their country and became so fond of the pharaoh
hat they worshipped him as a god-king. This national pride and identification
with the pharaoh kept the unity of ancient Egypt and made its civilization
prosper for many centuries
From that time until around 525 BC, when Egypt was conquered by the Persians, Egypt's history is divided into six different time periods. These are
called the Old Kingdom, the First Intermediate Period, the Middle Kingdom, the
Second Intermediate Period, the New Kingdom, and the Third Intermediate Period.
But the economy of ancient Egypt was ruined by all the resources that
the pharaohs put into the building of pyramids and the gradual decline and fall
of ancient Egyptian civilization.

Topic05:

Write a
composition on the scientific achievements of the ancient Egyptian
civilization.

Typical
Essay:

Egyptian scientists were generally most interested in observing nature and practical engineering, and they were very good at both of these
things. The pyramids and temples, for example, show good knowledge of geometry and engineering. Egyptian engineers used the Pythagorean Theorem, thousands of years before Pythagoras was
born.
Because the Nile flood was so important to Egyptian farming, scientists also worked out good ways to measure how high the flood was
going each year, and kept accurate records and good calendars. You can see here
how the Egyptian wrote down numbers. The device they used to measure the height ofthe Nile flood is called a Nilometer.
They also worked out good ways to move water
from the Nile to outlying farms in the desert, using hand-powered irrigation pumps (shadufs) and canals.
It may also have been Egyptian scientists whofirst figured out how to make yeast-rising bread.

Topic06:


Write a
composition on the achievements of the ancient Egyptian civilization in
architecture.

Typical
Essay:

People
tend to think that Egyptian building styles stayed the same for the whole
period of Egyptian history, from the beginning of the Old Kingdom to the end of
the New Kingdom two thousand years later, but that's not true. The Egyptians built different kinds of buildings at different times, just like any
other group of people.
In theearly part of the Old Kingdom, the Egyptians built mainly mastabas, a kind of
tomb with a flat roof like a house. Then throughout most of the Old Kingdom, the Egyptians built the pyramid tombs which are now so famous. Of course they also built smaller
buildings like houses and butcher shops.
In the Middle Kingdom, the mastaba tomb came back again, although in
a more elaborate form for the Pharaohs. They didn't build any more pyramids.
Then in the New Kingdom there was a lot of building that was not
tombs: temples for the gods especially, but also palaces for the Pharaohs.

Topic07:


Write a
composition on the ancient Sumerian civilization and its achievements.

Typical
Essay:

The people who settled down and began to
develop a civilization, in the land between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers
, are known as the Sumerians. About a thousand years later, the Babylonians took over inthe south, and the Assyrianstook over in the north, but the Sumerian culture lived on.
The Sumerian civilization probably began
around 5000 BCE. In the beginning, they were an agricultural community. They grew crops and stored food for times of
need.
The ancient Sumerians werevery smart. They invented, amongst other things, the wheel, the sailboat, andthe first written language, frying pans, razors, cosmetic sets, shepherd’spipes, harps, kilns to cook bricks and pottery, bronze hand tools like hammersand axes, the plow, the plow seeder, and the first superhero, Gilgamesh.
They invented a system of
mathematics based on the number 60. Today, we divide an hour into 60 minutes,
and a minute into 60 seconds. That comes from the ancient Mesopotamians.
Some Mesopotamian words are
still in use today. Words like crocus, which is a flower, and saffron, which is
a spice, are words borrowed from the ancient Mesopotamians.
The ancient Mesopotamians created
a government that was a combination of monarchy and democracy. Kings ruled the
people. Elected officials who served in the Assembly also ruled the people.
Even kings had to ask the Assembly for permission to do certain things.
Law held a special place in
their civilization. In Babylonian
times, laws were actually written down. But there were always laws.
The laws clearly said how you had to behave and what your punishment would be
if you did not behave correctly. And the laws that were later written down, for
the most part, were laws created by the ancient Sumerians.
Ancient Sumer was a bustling place of three or four hundred people.
The ancient Sumerians built many cities along the Tigris and the Euphrates
Rivers. Archaeologists believe that their largest city, the city of Ur, had a
population of around 24,000 residents!

Topic08:


Write a
composition on the ancient Phoenician civilization.

Typical
Essay:

Another great race of people descended from
the Babylonian or Semitic stock were the Phoenicians. They inherited the
intellectual and adventurous side of Babylonian life, and through them the use
of the alphabet, or written language, was spread abroad over all the world.
The Phoenicians were earth's
first-known sailors and explorers. In tiny barks, such as we of today would
think scarcely safe for navigating a river, they coasted the entire
Mediterranean Sea and even ventured far along the shores of the tempestuous
Atlantic. They went not as traders in the ordinary sense, but as bold
adventurers, eager to see new things, resolute to confront and conquer whatever
sudden, unknown danger leaped upon them.
Their home lay along the eastern shores
of the Mediterranean, adjoining Palestine, the home of the Hebrews. There they
built mighty cities--Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, celebrated in song and story, the
richest, most strongly guarded towns of their day. From these, the daring
little ships sped forth ready to traffic or to plunder--for the Phoenicians
were ever pirates where piracy seemed most profitable--ready to turn miners and
dig in the tin mines of England, or become herders and raise flocks in the
fertile valleys of Spain. They were, as the Greeks called them, a "red
people," ruddy of face and probably of hair. The whole world knew and
liked and feared these red Phoenicians, these first ready-witted searchers of
the globe.

Topic09:

Write a
composition on the achievements of the ancient Indus valley civilization in
architecture and art.

Typical
Essay:

The earliest big
buildings in India were built by the Harappan people in the Indus River valley, about 2500 BC. The Harappan buildings included high brick walls around their cities to keep out enemies. Most of the buildings
were ordinary houses, with rooms arranged around a small courtyard. Probably
some families owned a whole house (and lived in it with their slaves), while others rented only one room in a house, and the whole family
lived together in the one room. The rulers built bigger buildings, like this
public bathing house and a town warehouse for storing wheat and barley, also out of mud-brick and baked brick. Like the houses, these bigger
buildings were square or rectangular, with small courtyards in the middle. They
used arches, but, like the Sumerians and the Egyptians, they only used them underground, as drains or
foundations for buildings.
The major themes of Indian art seem to begin
emerging as early as the Harappan period, about 2500 BC. Although we're still not sure, some Harappan images look like later
images of Vishnu and Shiva, and the tradition may start this early. With the arrival of the Indo-Europeans (or Aryans) around 1500 BC, came new artistic
ideas.
Around 500 BC, the conversion to Buddhism of a large part of the population of India brought with it some new
artistic themes. But at first nobody made images of the Buddha - only stupas
(STOO-pahs), symbolic representations that didn't look like a person.
Then the conquests of Alexander the Great, in the 320's BC, also had an important impact
on Indian art. Alexander left colonies of Greek veteran soldiers in Afghanistan
and Pakistan, and these soldiers attracted Greek sculptors (maybe some of the
soldiers were sculptors). Their Greek-style carvings attracted attention in India - the
first life-size stone statues in India date to the 200's BC, just after
Alexander. During the Guptan period, about 500 AD, the great cave temples of Ajanta and Ellora were carved. Scenes from
the life of the Buddha became popular, and statues of the Buddha.
Finally, the arrival of the Islamic faith and Islamic conquerors about 1000 AD brought iconoclasm to India, and a love of varied and complex patterning
derived from Arabic and Persian models. This affected even Hindu artists who had not converted to Islam. Small Persian-style miniature
paintings also became popular.

_________________
[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذه الصورة]

حين خآب ظني بَ الكثير ! آكتشفت ان حُب الذآت .. ليس بــ أنـآنـيـه ! -


عدل سابقا من قبل étoile في الخميس 1 مارس 2012 - 18:30 عدل 1 مرات
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
étoile
مسؤولة على اشهار وتطوير المنتدى

مسؤولة على اشهار وتطوير المنتدى
avatar

الاوسمة :
عدد المساهمات : 666
نقاط : 776
السٌّمعَة : 23
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/09/2010


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: written expressions   الخميس 1 مارس 2012 - 18:19

Topic10:






Write a
composition on the scientific achievements of the ancient Indus valley
civilization?





Typical
Essay:






From the time of the Harappans to the time of the Islamic conquests, Indian scientists and mathematicians were leaders in many different fields. They
especially stood out in mathematics and engineering.


The Harappans in 2500 BC had a sewage system at their city of Mohenjo-Daro, and carefully laid
out, straight streets. So even though we can't read their writing, we know that
the Harappans understood a lot of geometry.


A severe climate change halted development at Harappa around 2000 BC.
The Aryan invasion of 1500 BC also seems to have stopped
scientific advances for a while, but it did bring military advances to India in
the form of horse-drawn war chariots. Around 800 BC, when the Aryans in northern India
learned to smelt iron from the Assyrians in West Asia, this gave them another military
advantage.


Around 500 BC, thanks to Persian influence, the city of Taxila (in modern Pakistan) became a great
scientific center. Atreya, a great botanist (plant specialist) and doctor, was working at Taxila about this time. Around
the 300's BC, Indian farmers seem to have been using water wheels to lift water
for irrigation - the earliest water wheels in the world.


By 250 or 200 BC, under Mauryan rule, Indian scientists were the first in the world
to be smelting iron with carbon to make steel.


In the 600's AD, Indian mathematicians may have been responsible for inventing the
numeral zero, and the decimal (or place) system (or it is possible that they got this idea from Chinese mathematicians). This made it a lot easier to add and multiply than it had been before. Indian mathematical ideas soon spread to West Asia and from there to Africa and Europe.


Indian advances in iron-working led to some
new ideas in the 1000's and 1100's AD. First, Indian architects were the first
to use iron beams to replace wooden beams for building big
temples. Second, Indian blacksmiths discovered a kind of iron that made a very
strong and flexible kind of steel, called wootz steel.






Topic11:






Write a
composition on the scientific achievements of the Roman civilization?





Typical
Essay:






Roman scientific
achievements are mostly in the areas of medicine and engineering. The Romans invented a lot of new ways to mine for
metals like silver and gold and lead. They developed water mills as well for grinding grain. And they were the first people to really use concrete for major building projects. The use of concrete helped them to develop
the dome and the barrel vault and the cross vault. They used their vaults to
build aqueducts to carry fresh water to towns, and they used
their engineering skills to build sewage systems to keep their towns clean and healthy.


Roman subjects in Phoenicia also invented
blown glass, and mold-made pottery and oil lamps were also first made in the Roman
period.

In medicine, Galen wrote during the Roman Empire, and he was the first to describe many
symptoms and treatments. His medical textbook was the standard for over a
thousand years. The Romans didn't do
that much work in mathematics, but they did develop their own way of writing numbers.



Topic12:






Write a
composition on the achievements of the Roman civilization in architecture?





Typical
Essay:



One of the things the Romans are most famous for is their architecture. The Romans brought a lot of
new ideas to architecture, of which the three most important are the arch, the baked brick, and the use of cement and concrete.
Around 700 BC the Etruscans brought West Asian ideas about architecture to Italy, and they
taught these ideas to the Romans. We don't have much Etruscan architecture left, but a lot of their underground tombs do
survive, and some traces of their temples.
In the Republican period, the Romans built temples and basilicas, but also they made a lot of improvements to
their city: aqueducts and roads and sewers. The Forum began to take shape. Outside of Rome, people began to build stone amphitheaters for gladiatorial games.
The first Roman emperor, Augustus, made more changes: he built a lot of brick and marble buildings, including a big Altar of Peace and
a big tomb for his family, and a big stone theater for plays. Augustus' stepson
Tiberius rebuilt the Temple of Castor and Pollux in the Roman forum. Augustus'
great-great-grandson Nero also did a lot of building in Rome, including his Golden House.



Then in 69 AD Vespasian tore down some of the Golden House to build
the Colosseum. Vespasian's son Titus built a great triumphal arch, and his other son Domitian built a great palace for himself on the Palatine hill.


Even though Domitian was assassinated in 96 AD, later architects continued to use the techniques that had been
developed for his palace, just as later emperors continued to live in
Domitian’s palace. Trajan’s architect used brick and concrete arches to build a new forum with a big column in it and an elaborate market building that is the source of modern shopping malls.
Trajan also built the first major public bath building in Rome. It may have been the same architect
who later designed Hadrian’s Pantheon, a temple to all the gods, which used brick and concrete to build a
huge dome. Nobody would build a bigger dome for more than a thousand years.


[ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]



Topic13:






Write a
composition on the ancient Roman system of government.





Typical
Essay:






From 500 BC to nearly 1500 AD, for two thousand years, Roman government had more or less the same
system. Of course there were some changes over that time too.

When the Roman Republic was first set up, in 500 BC, the people in
charge were two men called consuls. The consuls controlled the army, and they
decided whether to start a war and how much taxes to collect and what the laws
were. There were also prefects in Rome, whose job was to run the city – some
heard court cases, some ran the vegetable markets or the meat markets or the
port. Finally, there was also an Assembly of all the men (not women) who were
grownup and free and had Roman citizenship.



Once the Romans began conquering other places, far away from the city of Rome, they also had
a system of provincial governors – men who took charge of a province of the
Empire, and who heard court cases there. They were also in charge of the army
while it was conquering places.


By about 50 BC, the time of Julius Caesar, these generals had begun to take over the
government and not pay any attention to the consuls or the Senate anymore, and
just do as they pleased. They could do that, because they had the army with
them.

Augustus, in 31 BC, was one of these generals. But he
realized that people didn’t like this pushing people around, and so he set up a
different system keeping the Senate and the consuls This system kept on going
for the next 1500 years, more or less.















Topic14:






Write a
composition on the scientific achievements of the ancient Chinese civilization.





Typical
Essay:






In early and medieval
China, as in the Roman Empire, science seems to have been oriented mainly
towards engineering and practical inventions, and not so much
towards theoretical ideas about how the natural world worked. It
was in Han Dynasty China that paper was first invented, and about the same time that the magnetic compass, for telling north from south, was also invented there. Scientists in
China also invented gunpowder.


Chinese scholars also conducted scientific observations of plants and animals, and also of astronomy (the stars and planets). The many detailed and careful drawings of flowers and other plants, and star charts, from China show this interest.


The influence of Confucius made China a place where logical thought was also highly valued. Mathematics was taught in the schools, through the use of
a math textbook called the Nine Chapters, which may have been written as early as the Han Dynasty in the 200's AD (but nobody knows for sure).


By around 850 AD, under the Tang Dynasty,
Chinese printers were experimenting with block printing, and around the year 1000 they invented
moveable type.




Topic15:






Write a
composition on the ancient Islamic civilization.





Typical
Essay:






People first came to the Arabian Peninsula
probably about 150,000 BC, in the Old Stone Age. They were hunters and gatherers. By 2000 BC (or possibly earlier) Semitic-speaking people had moved into the Arabian Peninsula, also coming from the north. They were nomads when they arrived, who travelled around with their sheep and goats pasturing them in different pastures at different
times of year. And they stayed nomads: many of them are nomads today.


In the southern part of the peninsula, on the
other hand, the people were farmers. Nobody is sure where they came from, but the Queen of Sheba mentioned in the Bible may be one of these people.


By the time of Alexander the Great, we start to know a little more about the
Arabs, because the Greeks were trading with them. The Romans also traded with the Arabs, who got spices and other things from India and sold them to the Romans for gold.


In the long war between the Sassanids and the Romans, different tribes of Arabs fought on each side. In this Late Antique
period, the kingdom of Saba (Sheba) fell apart.


The Prophet Mohammed was born in the northern Arabian trading city of Mecca between 570 and
580 AD. When he was forty years old, he heard the angel Gabriel speaking to
him and telling Mohammed that he was a prophet in the line of Abraham, Moses, and Jesus, who would continue the faith those prophets had started. Mohammed's
faith was called Islam (iz-LAMM). After a slow start, Mohammed made a lot of converts to his
religion, and after he won some military battles, most of the other Arabic
tribes also converted to Islam. After they had done that, Mohammed's successors attacked first the Romans and then the Sassanids to convert them. By 640 (after the death of
Mohammed) the Arabs controlled most of West Asia, and soon after that, under the rule of the Umayyad caliphs, they conquered Egypt. By 711, the Umayyads controlled all of Western Asia except Turkey (which was still part of the Roman Empire), and all of the southern Mediterranean: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, and most of Spain.



Topic16:






Write a
composition on the scientific achievements of the ancient Islamic civilization.





Typical
Essay:






Because West Asia was such an economic crossroads in the medieval Islamic period - because of
the Silk Road that connected China and India in the east to Europe and Africa in the West - there were always lots of new scientific ideas coming through West Asia too. Educated West Asian scholars were able to make use of these foreign ideas to
develop new scientific theories and approaches.


One example from the East is the use of
"Arabic" numbers, which really came from India, about 630 AD. The Arabic word for numbers, in fact, is hindsah, which means
"from India". Arab scientists, especially the Persian Mohammed
Al-Khwarizmi, were able to make use of the new numbers (and possibly the work
of Greek mathematicians like Diophantus of Alexandria) to develop algebra around 830 AD (The English word "algorithm" comes from
Al-Khwarizmi). (Ordinary people, however, kept on using the Greek system of numbers; only mathematicians used Arabic numbers).


In the 800's AD, the great schools at Cordoba
in Spain, under Umayyad rule, inspired many scholars to investigate new
scientific ideas. Among them was a man of Berber origin, Ibn Firnas, who designed the first glider, which he
successfully used in 875, when he was 65 years old, to fly down from a cliff
near Cordoba (though he hurt his back when he landed). This was the first
controlled human flight.


A more successful invention also from Islamic
Spain was the glass mirror, invented around 1000 AD. Even earlier, in the
900's, Ibn Sahl and others made curved glass mirrors that concentrated sunlight
to focus heat.


About 1000 AD, West Asian blacksmiths also
learned how to make steel from India, and then they developed the idea further to produce the
very high quality Damascus steel that was used in fighting the Crusades.


Another example from the East is the use of paper, which the Arabs learned from the Chinese about 750 AD. The magnetic compass also came to West Asia from China, about 1100 AD.


From the West, Arabic scholars were able to
read the books of the Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle, and the Roman encyclopedist Pliny the Elder, and they translated these books into Arabic. They were especially interested in Aristotle and Pliny's studies of
plants and animals, and produced many new studies like that of their own, often
with beautifully detailed and accurate illustrations. This led to the
classification and description of many new species of plants and animals, and
also to advances in medicine. All through the Middle Ages, everyone knew that the best doctors, men
like Ibn Sina or Maimonides, lived in the Islamic kingdoms.



Topic17:






Write a
composition on the achievements of the Islamic civilization in architecture.





Typical
Essay:



The first buildings that were built in the Islamic Empire were designed by Greek architects who had already been living in the area when
the Arabs conquered it. Because of that, these buildings look a lot like earlier
buildings in the area - Late Roman Empire buildings. But because they were now
building Islamic mosques and not Christian churches, these Greek architects were able to experiment with some new forms,
developing a new Islamic style. One of the earliest mosques is the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, from the 600's AD. It's octagonal, like Hadrian's Pantheon, instead of being cross-shaped like a Christian church. In the late 700's AD, the new Arab rulers of
North Africa marked their new territory by building great mosques like the one
at Kairouan (modern Tunisia) and the one at Cordoba in Spain.


In the Abbasid period, beginning about 800 AD, the capital of the Islamic empire moved further east, to Baghdad, and
so the caliphs needed a lot of new beautiful palaces and mosques built in Baghdad. Because Baghdad was in the old Sassanian Empire, the architects who lived there followed Sassanian architectural traditions, and these buildings, like the mosque at Samarra, looked very different from the ones built by
the Greek architects.


In the end, though, the Islamic Empire made it
so easy to travel around that all the architects got to know each other's
styles, and there got to be one main style of building all across the Islamic
Empire. As the empire broke down into a lot of smaller kingdoms, the ruler of
each kingdom needed to show how important he was, so he built mosques and
palaces in his own capital. The Fatimids, for example, built the Al-Azhar mosque in Cairo in the 900's AD. In
Spain in the late 1200's AD, the Almohads, built their own palace at Granada, the Alhambra.


The Ottoman sultan built the last great Islamic
building before 1500 AD - his palace in Istanbul, which he built in the late 1400's AD.






Topic18:






Write a
composition on the achievements of the Islamic civilization in art.





Typical
Essay:



For the earliest years of the Islamic Empire,
under the Umayyad dynasty, we don't have very much art surviving. The
best of it is the elaborate mosaics on the Dome of the Rock mosque in Jerusalem and on the Great Mosque in Damascus. These mosaics are
done in a Roman style, probably by Roman craftsmen.


But already we can see one big difference
between Roman art and Islamic art: the followers of Islam, like the Jews, took seriously the idea that you should not make graven images, and
although these mosaics show plants and buildings they do not show people or animals.


By the Abbasid period, even plants and buildings were frowned on.
Most of the art was geometric designs. A lot of these designs seem to be from
fabric patterns. The Arabs, because they were nomadic, had always relied on carpets and hangings for decoration. Now that
they lived in buildings, they used those same familiar patterns only in stone
or tile. They often used calligraphy (beautiful writing) of verses from the Koran to decorate buildings, plates, and vases.


In this period, also, the focus of the Islamic
Empire shifted from Damascus and the old Roman territory east to Baghdad and the old Sassanian territory. So the art also became more Persian and less Roman.


By about 1000 AD, the
Islamic empire was breaking up into smaller states, and each state developed
its own art style. There are individual styles for Spain, the Maghreb, Egypt, the Ottoman Empire, and Persia.


In some of these places, the iconoclastic rules against using pictures of things or
people were relaxed as time went on. In Persia (modern Iran), painters made
beautiful little miniature paintings of people at court, and of famous people
from history.



The arrival of paper from China in 751 AD let artists do a lot more painting, because paper was so much
cheaper than papyrus or parchment.


After the Mongols conquered Persia and China in the 1200's AD, many Chinese motifs started to show up in Persian
painting and vases.

_________________
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حين خآب ظني بَ الكثير ! آكتشفت ان حُب الذآت .. ليس بــ أنـآنـيـه ! -
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
 
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